Author (Year) Study Design Country Student Level Modality Domain Outcomes Conclusion Oxford Rating
Adamczyk (2009) Prospective Observational Germany Year 1 Web-based Interactive Program Anatomy Questionnaires Adjunct resource to learning 2b
Backhaus (2019) Prospective Observational Germany Year 5 Web-based lectures Surgical Teaching Test Results ‘Digital natives’ students were disadvantaged to traditional lecture style 2b
Beermann (2010) Randomized Trial Germany Year 4-5 Web-based Video Learning Anatomy Test Results Improved identification of anatomy with males benefitting more 2b
Bernardo (2004) Prospective Observational Brazil Year 3 Web-Based Interactive Program Experimental Surgery Questionnaire and MCQ Positive feedback and can be successfully implemented 2b
Bhatti (2011) Prospective Observational United Kingdom Year 3 Web-Based and Podcast Learning Surgical Skills - Colorectal Questionnaire Improvement in knowledge 2b
Devitt (1998) Prospective Observational Australia Year 4 Software-Based modules Surgical teaching Test Can supplement clinical experience 2b
Dubrowski (2005) Cross sectional Canada Year 1 Interactive Computer-Based video Surgical Skills Frequency of viewing Results can be used as a guide to develop instructional videos 4
El Shallaly (2012) Prospective Observational Sudan Final Year Computer-Based Clinical Examination Surgical Skills Test score Feasible and popular 2b
Fingeret (2016) Retrospective Review United States Year 3 Web-based operative video platform Surgical Skills Exam score Useful adjunct to live observation 2b
Gul (1999) Prospective Observational London Year 1 Clinical Videoconferencing Surgical Skills Questionnaire High acceptance and satisfaction rates 2b
Harrington (2018) Randomised Cross-over study Ireland Preclinical 360 Degree Operative Video Surgical Skills Questionnaire Significant engagement and attentiveness 2b
Healy (2005) Prospective Observational Ireland Not stated Computer Aided Learning Programme Surgical Skills Exam Score Usage associated with improved class ranking 2b
Jawaid (2019) Randomised Controlled Trial Pakistan Year 6 Computer-Based Simulation Clinical Reasoning Skills OSCE Enhanced clinical reasoning skills 2b
Karic (2020) Cross Sectional United States Year 3 Educational Videos Surgical Skills Checklist criteria Lack of quality surgical educational videos online 4
Kleinert (2015) Prospective Observational Germany Year 3 Educational Content Module Surgical Skills MCQ Tool for supporting clinical education 2b
Kronenfeld (2020) Cross sectional United States Year 3 Teleconferencing Surgical teaching Survey Online learning perceived as effective as in-person teaching in preparing for examinations 4
Kumar (2011) Cross Sectional Oman Year 1 Operative video Anatomy Questionnaire Effective resource for gross anatomy 4
Liebert (2016) Prospective Observational United States Year 3 Simulated-Based Flipped Classroom Surgical Skills Survey Offer additional benefits compared to traditional based curriculum 2b
Lindeman (2015) Prospective Observational United States Year 3 Blended Online Curriculum Surgical Skills Evaluation and examination score Noninferior academic outcomes but improved satisfaction 2b
Memon (2007) Prospective Observational Ireland Not Stated Web-Based Lecture Course Surgical Skills Exam Score and questionnaire Significant increase in examination performance 2b
Nousiainen (2008) Randomised controlled trial Canada Year 1-2 Computer-Based Video Training Surgical Skills Performance assessments Support for computer-based video instruction 2b
Shippey (2011) Randomsied Controlled trial United States Year 1 Instructional Video Surgical skills Assessment score Effective method for acquiring skills 2b
Stain (2005) Prospective Observational United States Year 3 Videoconference lectures Surgical Skills Quiz results Effective method for didactic lectures 2b
Sullivan (2016) Prospective Observational United States Year 3 Virtual Patient Cases Clinical Reasoning Engagement Including more cases allows additional practice 2b
Vash (2007) Randomised Controlled trial Iran Not stated Virtual Patients Surgical Skills Test Score Enhanced history taking 2b